History of Unix and Linux
MULTICS & UNICS
- Researchers at M.I.T. joined forces with Bell Labs and Generic Electric and began designing a second-generation system, MULTICS(Multiplexed Information and Computing Service)
- One of the Bell Labs researchers, Ken Thompson wrote a stripped-down MULTICS on a PDP-7 minicomputer. The system is called UNICS(UNiplexed Information and Computing Service) jokingly by Brian Kernighan, Bell Labs.
- Thompson tied to rewite UNIX with B language of his own design and failed. Ritchie then designed a successor to B, called C. Working together, they rewrote UNIX in C.
- Steve Johnson of Bell Labs designed and implemented the portable C compiler, which could be retargeted to produce code for any resonable machine with a only a moderate amount of effort.
- AT&T released its first commercial UNIX: System III, then System V.
- Aided by U.S. Dept. of Defense, Berkeley released an improved PDP-11 called 1BSD(First Berkeley Software Distribution), which supported virtual memory, TCP/IP, vi, csh, etc.
- IEEE came up with POSIX(Portable Operating System of UNIXish), witch reconcile the two flavors of UNIX.